physical properties of alkaline earth metals

Alkaline earth metals are also highly reactive and hence do not occur in the free state but are widely distributed in nature in the combined state as silicates, carbonates, sulphates and phosphate. Other important minerals of calcium are fluorite or fluorspar CaF2, gypsum CaSO4.2 H2O and anhydrite CaSO4. Beryllium and magnesium atoms are smaller in size and their electrons are strongly held by the nucleus. The alkaline earth metals are denser than the alkali metals due to smaller size and better backing in the crystal lattice. Reason: They form ionic compounds because they have low ionization enthalpies. On moving down the group, the atomic radii increases and ionization enthalpy decreases. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions. As a result , a larger amount of lattice enthalpy is released during the formation of compounds containing M. Like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals form ionic compounds which are less ionic than the corresponding alkali metal compounds. Since the atoms of the alkaline earth metals have smaller size and higher ionization enthalpies as compared to corresponding alkali metals, their tendency to lose valence electrons is lesser than those of alkali metals. Be2+ > Mg2+ >Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+. Alkali metals are softer when compared to alkaline earth metals. Therefore, they can easily lose these two electrons to form divalent cation. Loading image • • • Trends in Physical properties: Trends in Physical Properties. Properties of the Alkaline Earth Metals . Alkaline Earth metals are very reactive because they readily give up their two valence electrons to achieve a full outer energy level, which is the most stable arrangement of electrons. Loading image • • • Previous. Atomic and ionic radii of alkaline earth metals are fairly large though smaller than the corresponding alkali metals and these increases down the group. Consequently the electropositive or metallic character increases. Legal. Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. The third ionization enthalpy of magnesium will be very high because now the electron has to be removed from the stable noble gas configuration. Alkali metals have the electronic configuration of [Noble gas] ns 1 while Alkaline earth metals have, [Noble gas] ns 2 electronic configuration. They are malleable and ductile but very less when compared to alkali metals. The name alkaline earth was given since the oxides are alkaline in nature and remain unaffected by heat or fire and exist in Earth’s crust. The alkaline earth metals are highly electropositive and hence metallic and their electropositive or metallic character increases down the group. Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. Slurried or finely divided barium have been known to react with explosive force when mixed with such halogenated hydrocarbons as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorotrifluoroethane, fluorotrichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc. This page explores the trends in some atomic and physical properties of the Group 2 elements: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium. Group 2 Elements: The Alkaline Earth Metals Expand/collapse global location Group 2: Physical Properties of Alkali Earth Metals Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 3675; Contributed by Jim Clark; Former Head of Chemistry and Head of Science at Truro School in Cornwall; Contributors and Attributions; This page explores the trends in some atomic and physical properties of the Group 2 … Your email address will not be published. The alkaline earth metals have fairly low ionization enthalpies though greater than those of the corresponding elements of group 1 and these decreases down the group. Alkaline earth metal prefer to form divalent ions rather than monovalent ions Down the group , there is no regular trend in their melting and boiling point. With regard to the valency of these metals, all … Your email address will not be published. Reason: The low ionisation enthalpies of the alkaline earth metals is because of their strong tendency to lose electrons due to their smaller nuclear charge and comparatively larger atomic size which results in weaker forces of attraction between the valence electrons and the nucleus. Missed the LibreFest? Different alkali metals While most of the alkali metals are silver in colour caesium actually has a gold tint Francium is the only radioactive alkali metal All alkali metals have a … Physical properties : Physical nature: These elements have two electrons in their outermost orbital. Reason: The alkaline earth metals have a higher nuclear charge ,and ,therefore the electrons are attracted more strongly towards the nucleus. The alkaline earth metals have two electrons more than the nearest noble gas configuration. They have a silvery luster. Therefore, removal of second electron in case of alkaline earth metals requires much less energy than that in case of alkali metals. Unlike other metals, the elements of the alkali metal group are soft substances and can be cut with a knife. Mg also shows some tendency for covalency. Some appears white but beryllium and magnesium appear greyish. Reason: Due to low ionisation energies, the alkaline earth metals have a strong tendency to lose both the valence electrons to form dipositive cations. Beryllium ,however, form covalent compounds because it has smaller size and high ionization enthalpy. Sections below cover the trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, electronegativity, and physical properties. The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure.. The alkali metals: are soft (they can be cut with a knife) have relatively low melting points when they return to their ground state, The absorbed energy is emitted in form of visible light of a particular wavelength. Be, (2) The existence of divalent ions in the solid state is due to the reason that divalent cations due to smaller size and higher charge form stronger lattices then monovalent cations. Alkaline earth metals are harder than alkali metals. Alkaline Earth Metals Reactions, Uses, Properties The general electron configuration of alkaline metals is [noble gas] ns 2 where n represents the valence shell. They are fairly reactive under standard conditions. Alkaline earth metals and alloys containing alkaline earth metals regarded as reducing agents. The alkaline earths possess many of the characteristic properties of metals. Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals. Reason:  The second electron in case of alkali metal is to be removed from a cation which has already acquired the stable noble gas configuration whereas in case of alkaline earth metal, the second electron is to be removed from a cation which is yet to acquire the stable noble gas configuration. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. The first member , Be, forms covalent compounds. Physical properties. Strontium is mined as  celestite SrSO4 and Strontianite SrCO3 and barium is mined as barytes , BaSO4. So they do not impart colour to the flame. Reason: Due to smaller size of alkaline earth metal ions as compared to alkali metal ions ,the hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions are larger than those of alkali metal ions. Reason : Because of their smaller size and hence better packing as compared to alkali metals, they are denser than alkali metal. The energy it takes to remove an electron from an element is called the ionization energy. NIOS Senior Secondary Notes. Because of this reason ,these metals are less soft then alkali metals. Properties of the alkaline earth metals pounds of alkaline earth metals difference between alkali metals and alkaline earth metals alkaline earth metals Alkaline Earth MetalsPpt Look At The Following Patterns What Are Based On Do You Observe Powerpoint Ation Id 1166475General Characteristics Of Pounds Alkaline Earth Metals EmedicalprepWhat Are The Properties Of Alkaline Earth MetalsIfas… Alkaline earths have low electron affinities and low electronegativities. Calcium is the fifth most abundant element by weight found in the earth crust.It mainly  occurs as CaCO3 in form of limestone, marble and chalk. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. So, group IIA elements are also termed as alkaline earth metals. Some physical properties and their trends is given in table: Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals. The second ionization enthalpies of the elements of group 1 are higher than those of elements of group 2. The alkaline earth metals (beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)) are a group of chemical elements in the s-block of the periodic table with very similar properties: shiny; silvery-white; somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure Last Updated on May 3, 2020 By Mrs Shilpi Nagpal 1 Comment. Atomic and Ionic Radii Most of their typical compounds are therefore ionic: salts in which the metal occurs as the cation M 2+, where M represents any Group 2 atom. Thus, these elements show strong electropositive or metallic character. Magnesium is the sixth most abundant element by weight found in the earth’s crust as carbonate ,sulphate and silicate. Hydrides: Alkali metals react with hydrogen at higher temperatures to form metallic hydrides. (3) The existence of divalent ions in the aqueous solution is due to greater enthalpy of hydration of the divalent ions which counterbalance the higher value of second ionization enthalpy. As with the alkali metals, the properties depend on the ease with which electrons are lost. Alkaline-earth metal - Alkaline-earth metal - Physical and chemical behaviour: The alkaline-earth elements are highly metallic and are good conductors of electricity. I… Slurried or finely divided barium have been known to react with explosive force when mixed with such halogenated hydrocarbons as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorotrifluoroethane, fluorotrichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc. Required fields are marked *, Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals, Beryllium is found in small quantities as silicate minerals, beryl Be, Calcium is the fifth most abundant element by weight found in the earth crust.It mainly  occurs as CaCO, The hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions decreases as the size of the metal ion increases down the group i.e. These metals are highly electropositive and form compounds which are ionic in nature. The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). Alkaline Earth (Group II) Trends Group 2: General Properties The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). To find potential alkaline-earth metal-doped aromatic superconductors and clarify the origin of superconductivity in metal-doped phenanthrene (PHN) systems, we have systematically investigated the crystal and electronic structures of bivalent metal (Mg, Ca, … The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Alkaline earth metals uniformly show an oxidation state of +2. Reason : Because of their smaller size and more closed packed crystal lattice as compared to alkali metals, their  melting and boiling points are higher than those of group 1 elements. The alkaline earths have two electrons in the outer shell. The main difference between alkali metals and alkaline earth metals is that alkali metals have one valence electron in the outermost orbit whereas alkaline earth metals have two valence electrons in the outermost orbit. Like alkali metal salts, alkaline earth metal salts also impart a characteristic colour to the flame. These elements form +2 cations because they have two valence electrons and, a cation can be formed by removing those electrons. But, it soon disappears upon exposure to air. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Their melting and boiling points are higher compared to alkali metals. The densities of alkali metals are much lower when compared to other metals. They need large amount of energy for excitation of electrons to higher energy levels which is not available in the bunsen flame. In their pure state, all of these elements tend to have a shiny, metallic appearance. Physical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals Down the column, nuclear charge increases and a new orbital is added to each alkaline earth atom. Author of this website, Mrs Shilpi Nagpal is MSc (Hons, Chemistry) and BSc (Hons, Chemistry) from Delhi University, B.Ed (I. P. University) and has many years of experience in teaching. Alkaline earth metals have two electrons in their outermost electron layer, which take relatively little energy to remove. (1) The divalent cation of alkaline earth metal acquire stable inert gas configuration. When alkaline earth elements and their compounds are put into a flame, the electrons absorb energy and are excited to higher levels. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. 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