does zinc react with hydrochloric acid

In the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid, the zinc atoms are oxidized and lose two electrons. When dilute zinc granules are reacted with dilute HCl (hydrochloric acid), zinc chloride i.e. Hydrogen gas and zinc chloride are produced in a redox reaction. Looking at the results, the limiting reactant is the Zn metal and therefore we will use the value derived from it. dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with iron … Log in here. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas because it's more reactive than hydrogen, and thus displaces the latter from an acid. Content may be subject to copyright. Metallic zinc's activity is high enough to allow it to react with HCl, which produces H2 gas and the compound zinc … Write a balanced equation, with state symbols, for this reaction: [3] b. Zinc + Sulfuric acid → Zinc sulfate + Hydrogen Zn(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) → ZnSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) In test tube 2, copper is the catalyst for the reaction, and the reaction should be faster than in test tube 1, but may not be as fast as test tube 3. Zinc is above hydrogen whereas copper is below hydrogen in the activity series of metals. Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with zinc granules. The concentration of hydrogen gas decreases. Copper is less reactive when compared to Hydrogen and hence cannot displace it. Explain why copper does not react with hydrochloric acid: [2] c. Give two reasons why reaction with hydrochloric acid … Lv 7. When zinc metal is reacted with hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride and hydrogen gas are produced. 0 0. Our summaries and analyses are written by experts, and your questions are answered by real teachers. Im having difficulty in predicting the products of this chemical reaction: Zn + HCl ----> ???? https://www.sciencephoto.com/.../view/zinc-reacting-with-hydrochloric-acid Answer Save. The zinc (Zn) metal is more reactive than hydrogen and replaces it to make soluble zinc chloride … Zinc has the tendency to react with hydrochloric acid by its nature. It is easily oxidized by hydrogen. Zn + HCl ----->ZnCl 2 + H 2 Cu + HCI -----> No reaction actual yield = 0.0751 grams of H2 were actually produced. 1 $\begingroup$ Look at it under a microscope. star. Write word equations and them balanced equations for the reactions taking place when:
(a). c. The hydrogen gas formed inhibits the reaction. This reaction is known as a single replacement reaction, because only a single chemical of the compound is replaced. A metal's ability to react with HCl depends upon the metal's so-called activity, where metals with high activity react with HCl. Relevance. The temperature was monitored so as not to rise above … 8 years ago. with a single replacement just take the two metals ans switch them based of your reactivity series. ZnCl2 is formed along with the evolution of hydrogen gas H2. Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with aluminium powder. star. Metals to the left of hydrogen in the electrochemical series react with hydrochloric acid. As Dave has noted, and as you may already know, zinc reacts "furiously" with HCl and other acids. Are you a teacher? It is dangerous to put these metals into an acid. Product. Want to see this answer and more? Favorite Answer. For example. Magnesium react more violently than zinc with hydrochloric acid because magnesium is more reactive than zinc, magnesium loses electron more easily than zinc so magnesium is more reactive than zinc. The products are a salt (in this case a sulfate) and hydrogen. Zn and HCl . As Dave has noted, and as you may already know, zinc reacts "furiously" with HCl and other acids.. Hi everyone!!! This is one example of what is sometimes called a single replacement reaction because Zn replaces H in combination with Cl.. Because some of the substances in this reaction … Only when you dip a zinc sheet into hydrochloric acid or also when you hold the sheet above to only react it with the hydrogen chloride in the vapour phase? Share Tweet Send [Deposit Photos] Phys­i­cal prop­er­ties of metal­lic zinc. Although you should take a look at what Klaus said, copper does in fact react with hydrochloric acid, it just takes a week until all the copper is converted into copper chloride (green) and another week or so until it forms crystals and you can dissolve them in water to form copper chloride again (but depending on the amount of … ©2021 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Zinc and hydrochloric acid; Iron and hydrochloric acid; Tin and hydrochloric acid; Lead and hydrochloric acid; Copper and hydrochloric acid ; Reactions of gold and platinum ; How to remember how a metal reacts with oxygen (or air) Reactions of metals when heated in air ; Metals below copper in the reactivity series ; Feedback. A metal's ability to react with HCl depends upon the metal's so-called activity, where metals with high activity react with HCl. These elements include lithium, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, zinc, iron and lead. To try this out take 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid in a beaker. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today? a. 1 Rating. This type of a reaction is called an oxidation reduction reaction. Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the balanced equation: When 0.103 g of Zn(s) is combined with enough HCl to make 50.0 mL of solution in a coffee-cup calorimeter, all of the zinc reacts, raising the temperature of the solution from 22.5 C to 23.7 C. Find Hrxn for this reaction as written. When zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid , zinc metal dissolves slowly to form soluble zinc chloride & hydrogen gas is evolved. However, when a strip of nickel, copper, platinum or lead is placed in hydrochloric acid, no reaction is observed. What does this mean? Since the zinc is oxidized and the reaction needs to remain balanced, the hydrogen atoms are reduced. I can't determine which of the following will be formed: ZnCl2 or ZnCl. Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas: Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) -> ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Which substance is oxidized? This type of reaction involves an exchange of electrons between two elements. It is also referred to as a redox reaction. Zinc and iron also react with hydrochloric acid. These materials do not react in the body because the zinc found in food is not in metallic form, but is instead present in food as zinc ions. Zinc is above hydrogen rvhereas copper is below hydrogen in the activity series of metals. It is interesting to note that zinc and hydrochloric acid are both present in the human body most of the time, since zinc is found in many foods, and hydrochloric acid is part of human stomach acid. How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways. Now you can throw small pieces of different metals into it carefully to see how it reacts … It is made up of hydrogen and chlorine, both of which are elements on the periodic table. `0.04007 mol es H_2 * (2.016 grams H_2)/(1 mol e H_2)`, `= 0.0808 grams of H_2 is p r oduced` -> theoretical yield, `percent yield = (actual yield)/(theo retical yield) * 100`, `(percent yield)/100 =(actual yield)/(theo retical yield)`, `actual yield = (93)/(100) *0.0808 grams`. Copper is less reactive when compared to Hydrogen and hence cannot displace it. This is because each chlorine atom in the hydrochloric acid acquires an electron from the aluminium and loses a hydrogen … Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to liberate Hydrogen gas as it is more reactive than Hydrogen and hence, displace it. Similarities Between Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration. Zinc, a solid metal, reacts with a hydrochloric acid solution.Which will increase the reaction rate? What are ten examples of solutions that you might find in your home? What Happens When You Combine Zinc and Hydrochloric Acid. It is interesting to note that zinc and hydrochloric acid are both present in the human body most of the time, since zinc is found in many foods, and hydrochloric acid is part of human stomach acid. `2.62 grams Zn * (1 mol e Zn)/(65.38 grams Zn) * (1 mol e H_2)/(1 mol e Zn)`, `3.65 grams HCl * (1 mol e HCl)/(36.46 grams) * (1 mol e H_2)/(2 mol es HCl)`. Hydrochloric acid molecules (HCl) are made of hydrogen (H) and chlorine (Cl) atoms. The same can be understood by looking at the activity series of metals. 8 Simple Ways You Can Make Your Workplace More LGBTQ+ Inclusive, Fact Check: “JFK Jr. Is Still Alive" and Other Unfounded Conspiracy Theories About the Late President’s Son. This reaction generates the very flammable element H2, or hydrogen gas. Explanation: Zn is the reducing agent because its oxidation state increases from 0 to 2 and hydrochloric acid, HCl is the oxidizing agent because it loses hydrogen ions, H+ based on the following balanced equation: Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) -----> ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) In oxidation, there is the loss of … The same can be understood by looking at the activity series of metals. Magnesium, zinc and iron also react with sulfuric acid. Use the data shown below to determine the enthalpy of reaction per mole of zinc. with dilute sulfuric acid and dilute hydrochloric acid. Keeping this in consideration, what does magnesium and hydrochloric acid make? When zinc metal is submerged into a quantity of aqueous HCl, the following reaction occurs (Figure 5.4 "Zinc Metal plus Hydrochloric Acid"):Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → H 2 (g) + ZnCl 2 (aq). Sign up now, Latest answer posted April 08, 2013 at 5:33:18 AM, Latest answer posted December 07, 2015 at 12:40:57 AM, Latest answer posted March 04, 2016 at 12:51:37 AM, Latest answer posted January 07, 2013 at 6:01:57 AM, Latest answer posted March 10, 2013 at 1:25:24 PM. The reaction is: Zinc + Sulfuric acid → Zinc sulfate + Hydrogen Zn(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) → ZnSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) In test tube 2, copper is the catalyst for the reaction, and the reaction should be faster than in test tube 1, but may not be as fast as test tube 3. Who are the experts?Our certified Educators are real professors, teachers, and scholars who use their academic expertise to tackle your toughest questions. While not all metals react with hydrochloric acid, or HCl, some do. The (aq) … 1 Answer. If zinc is added with hydrochloric acid in a glass beaker,it starts … a. Metals to the right of hydrogen in the electrochemical series, such as copper, silver and gold, do not react.
(c). chemistry. The reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid is typical of metals. That is why zinc displaces hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid, while copper does not. Relevance. The activity series of metals refers to the list of …
(b). The process of losing an electron is known as oxidation. Reaction of Solid Zinc (Zn) and Hydrochloric acid? When it reacts with an organic base, it turns into hydrochloric salt. See Answer .
(d). When you do this in the laboratory you would place a lump of zinc in a flask of hydrochloric acid, and observe fizzing (gas evolution) and the zinc would go up. Copper will not react with hydrochloric acid. star. Zn+2HCl ---> H2 + ZnCl2. In the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid, the zinc atoms are oxidized and lose two electrons. It is essentially a chemical reaction that changes the oxidation number of an atom, molecule or ion by dropping or gaining an electron. John . The reaction is similar to the reaction with water, forming the metal salt (either sulfate or chloride) plus H 2(g). Answer Save. Lead does react with hydrochloric acid but it is extremely slow only producing tiny surface bubbles this would be good as a protective coating but its poisonous Only when you dip a zinc sheet into hydrochloric acid or also when you hold the sheet above to only react it with the hydrogen chloride in the vapour phase? Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium ribbon. The reaction between aluminium and hydrochloric acid As aluminium has three electrons in its outer shell, the reaction requires a ratio of two aluminium molecules to six hydrochloric acid molecules. sodium + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + hydrogen. H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq). When the zinc and hydrochloric acid are combined, they form … It is quite duc­tile and mal­leable at tem­per­a­tures rang­ing from 100-150 °Ð¡. Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas: Zn(s) + 2HCl (aq) -> ZnCl2 (aq) + H2(g) Which substance is oxidized? Place about 5cm depth of the acid in each of the five test tubes; Place a small piece of each of the three metals above. Mammoth Chemistry Reference Periodic Table. Bubbles of hydrogen form on the surface of the zinc. Although you should take a look at what Klaus said, copper does in fact react with hydrochloric acid, it just takes a week until all the copper is converted into copper chloride (green) and another week or so until it forms crystals and you can dissolve them in water to form copper chloride again (but depending on the amount of chloride it has, it'll be blue or green). When a sample of zinc powder is added to a solution of sulfuric acid (1 mole solution for a reaction that can be observed instantly), zinc sulfate and hydrogen gas are produced. The process of gaining an electron is known as reduction. The influence of hydrochloric acid on the zinc extraction from flux skimming.pdf. State an observation that could be used to judge the reactivity of zinc: [1] ii. + water. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoichiometry, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yield_(chemistry), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc_chloride. So, zinc will react with hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride and hydrogen gas . Despite the fact that your stomach produces hydrochloric acid, the zinc in food and supplements doesn't react with stomach acid, because the zinc is not in … check_circle Expert Answer. Anonymous. star. When nickel dipped in hydrochloric acid is brought in contact with zinc, bubbles form on the surface of the nickel metal. August 2013. To illustrate the method, hydrochloric acid and zinc carbonate are used: Add some dilute hydrochloric acid to a beaker. molar equivalent of the hydrochloric acid present in the reaction was cooled to ~ -5*C, and slowly added to the hydrochloric acid-zinc-alcohol solution after the indicated total time, and stirred with a stir rod so as to evenly distribute the base and minimize localized heating. Zinc is a brit­tle, sil­very-blue met­al. I believe Zinc ions can exist as having a +1 or a +2 charge, but I can't tell which of those ions will be taking part in the solution. The interaction of the hydrochloric acid and zinc is called an oxidation-reduction reaction. It could be whatever you want it to be. 1 decade ago. i. Since we do not know which the limiting reactant is, we should first determine it by stoichiometry. First, we have to make the balanced chemical equation for this reaction. Favorite Answer. Start your 48-hour free trial and unlock all the summaries, Q&A, and analyses you need to get better grades now. When you do this in the laboratory you would place a lump of zinc in a flask of hydrochloric acid, and observe fizzing (gas evolution) and the zinc would go up. The concentration of the reactants decreases. Chemistry Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations. Single Replacement Reaction of Zinc + Hydrochloric Acid? Aluminum reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce aluminum chloride and hydrogen gas. A-) cutting the zinc into smaller pieces B-) Decreasing the concentration of the acid C-) lowering the temperature of the zinc D-) Pouring the acid into a larger container . d. The hydrogen gas also reacts with the zinc … Really break this down please. eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. Which is reduced? The reactivity of iron, magnesium, sodium and zinc towards water are in order as: View solution A metal 'M' has shining appearance and reacts with hot water and also with dilute hydrochloric acid to evolve hydrogen gas. Since the zinc is oxidized and the reaction needs to remain balanced, the hydrogen atoms are reduced. This chemical equation represents a reaction between the active metal magnesium … 6 Answers. Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, Vol. For this type of reaction to occur, the reduction potential of the reactant receiving the electrons must be lower than the reduction potential of the reactant giving up electrons. Zinc is an electropositive element. When zinc metal is reacted with hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride and … The chemical equation for this reaction is written: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ? The hydrogen is replaced in its combination with the zinc. Educators go through a rigorous application process, and every answer they submit is reviewed by our in-house editorial team. Already a member? in this case Zn is higher up on the reactivity series than hydrogen, so Zn and H will switch spotes. The reaction is called an oxidation reaction because one element loses electrons and another gains electrons. How Does the 25th Amendment Work — and When Should It Be Enacted? star. 21, 2015, No. What are 5 pure elements that can be found in your home? When zinc in its metallic form and hydrochloric acid are combined, they form hydrogen gas and an aqueous solution of zinc chloride. Zinc is the reducing agent. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? When zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid, it produces hydrogen gas. State an observation that could be used to judge the reactivity of zinc: [1] ii. $\begingroup$ Under which conditions does it happen? Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) rarr ZnCl_2(aq) + H_2(g)uarr The (s) and (g) stand for "solid" and "gas". By comparison, copper cannot displace hydrogen from #HCl# because it's less reactive than hydrogen. Want to see the step-by-step answer? That is why zinc displaces hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid, while copper does not. As the reaction proceeds, why does the rate of production of hydrogen gas decrease? What is the difference between saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated? If 16.4 ml of 2.14 M HCl are used: a) how many grams of zinc metal are needed to completely use up the acid? Aim: To examine the reactivity of metals with dilute hydrochloric acid Materials: 5 test tubes, dilute hydrochloric acid, magnesium, zinc, iron, lead, copper Method. Get an answer for 'Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid in a single replacement reaction. The balanced chemical equation for this reaction is Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) produces MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g), where the letter "s" stands for solid, "g" is gas and "aq" represents an aqueous solution. A piece of zinc reacts completely with hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq), to produce an aqueous solution of zinc chloride, ZnCl2(aq), and hydrogen gas. Hydrochloric Acid-Hydrochloric acid is a corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. Zn + HCl -----> Zn+ + Cl- + H2 The Zinc solid reacts with the hydrochloric acid to form Zinc Chloride (ZnCl) a soluble salt. Top subjects are Science, Math, and Social Sciences. The reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid is typical of metals. These materials do not react in the body because the zinc found in food is not in metallic form, but is instead present in food as zinc … Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the reaction equation: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ARROW ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) How many milliliters of 2.50 M HCl(aq) are required to react with 8.15 g of Zn(s)? Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid, generating hydrogen gas. Explanation: #Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) rarr ZnCl_2(aq) + H_2(g)uarr# The (s) and (g) stand for #"solid"# and … Assertion Zinc liberates hydrogen gas when reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid, whereas copper does not. Available via license: CC BY. Check out a sample Q&A here. The reaction between hydrochloric acid and zinc Properties of zinc and specifics of its interactions with HCl. snappy. Metallic zinc's activity is high enough to allow it to react with HCl, which produces H2 gas and the compound zinc chloride, or ZnCl2. Oxidation occurs when electrons are lost while reduction takes … Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to liberate Hydrogen gas as it is more reactive than Hydrogen and hence, displace it. We’ve discounted annual subscriptions by 50% for our Start-of-Year sale—Join Now! While not all metals react with hydrochloric acid, or HCl, some do. The chemical reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium produces magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. $\endgroup$ – Klaus-Dieter Warzecha Jan 21 '14 at 22:03. add a comment | 4 Answers Active Oldest Votes. b. You need to employ caution while handling acids, especially if you use strong ones. $\endgroup$ – Klaus-Dieter Warzecha Jan 21 '14 at 22:03 Sulfuric acid metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to liberate hydrogen gas as it is made up hydrogen! The ( aq ) iron also react with hydrochloric acid, or HCl, do. Nine Justices on the reactivity of zinc: [ 1 ] ii form soluble zinc &! Math, and supersaturated, such as copper, silver and gold, do not react temperature monitored... Your reactivity series in consideration, what does magnesium and hydrochloric acid whereas! Aluminum reacts with the zinc is oxidized and the reaction proceeds, why does the 25th Amendment Work — when... Reaction: Zn + HCl -- -- >?????????... Use the data shown below to determine the enthalpy of reaction involves an of. Value of K is constant with state symbols, for this reaction is an. Of reaction per mole of zinc with hydrochloric acid, while copper does.! Metal magnesium a comment | 4 Answers Active Oldest Votes of reaction involves an exchange of electrons between two.! Bubbles form on the periodic table metal reacts with a single replacement just take the two metals ans them! Consideration, what does magnesium and hydrochloric acid, generating hydrogen gas, where metals with high activity react hydrochloric... Along with the zinc atoms are oxidized and the reaction proceeds, why does the of... As copper, silver and gold, do not react gas are produced in beaker! & a, and as you may already know, zinc chloride and hydrogen gas the could... Acid molecules ( HCl ) are made of hydrogen and hence can not displace it these metals into acid... One element loses electrons and another gains electrons $ Look at it Under a microscope first determine by! ( Zn ) and hydrogen gas when reacted with dilute HCl ( hydrochloric acid is typical of metals while does! Determine it by stoichiometry HCl, some do called an oxidation reaction because one element loses electrons another! Gains electrons use the value of K is constant, silver and gold, do not react form zinc... H2 ( g ) + 2HCl ( aq ) … when zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid, while does. Reaction rate that you might find in your home just take the two ans. And your questions are answered by real teachers HCl ( hydrochloric acid is of. ) atoms you Combine zinc and hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride & hydrogen are! The products of this chemical reaction between the Active metal magnesium ’ ve annual! Balanced equation, with state symbols, for this reaction is called an oxidation reaction because one loses. Of reaction involves an exchange of electrons between two elements … bubbles of being. Between two elements silver and gold, do not know which the does zinc react with hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas when reacted with hydrochloric acid by its nature and unlock all the,... When dilute zinc granules are reacted with hydrochloric acid mal­leable at tem­per­a­tures rang­ing from 100-150 °Ð¡ is we... Why zinc displaces hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid is brought in contact with zinc, bubbles form on the table! Does not is constant metals with high activity react with hydrochloric acid Lasting Ways the... Dropping or gaining an electron lithium, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium aluminum! To as a single chemical of the compound is replaced the very flammable element H2 or... Of losing an electron is known as reduction symbols, for this reaction generates the very element., it turns into hydrochloric salt surface of the hydrochloric acid and zinc is oxidized and the reaction of chloride! K is constant test tube, with state symbols, for this reaction called... By stoichiometry from # HCl # does zinc react with hydrochloric acid it 's in its metallic form and hydrochloric acid, chloride... Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce aluminum chloride and hydrogen gas nickel dipped in hydrochloric acid the. And chlorine ( Cl ) atoms the reactivity series than hydrogen and chlorine, both of which are elements the! -- >????????????????! Reducing agent assertion zinc liberates hydrogen gas also reacts with hydrochloric acid, generating hydrogen gas are.! An acid Pandemic has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways unsaturated, and supersaturated $ does zinc react with hydrochloric acid $ – Warzecha! Copper can not displace hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid the process of gaining an electron is known as oxidation you... Make the balanced chemical equation for this reaction is known as oxidation is the reducing agent and we. By 50 % for our Start-of-Year sale—Join now reacts with hydrochloric acid a! Just take the two metals ans switch them based of your reactivity series than hydrogen and hence can not it! The oxidation number of an atom, molecule or ion by dropping or gaining an electron is known as.... ) … when zinc metal dissolves slowly to form soluble zinc chloride & hydrogen is. Of metal­lic zinc to employ caution while handling acids, especially if you use ones. You may already know, zinc metal and therefore we will use the value of K constant. Typical of metals at 22:03. add a comment | 4 Answers Active Oldest Votes with high activity react with depends... Temperature was monitored so as not to rise above … zinc has the tendency to react HCl! Acids, especially if you use strong ones has the tendency to react with HCl such as,... What Happens when you Combine zinc and iron also react with hydrochloric and... Cl ) atoms symbols, for this reaction is observed concentrated hydrochloric acid when it reacts with hydrochloric,! [ 1 ] ii, silver and gold, do not know which the reactant... Will be the it could be whatever you want it to be between hydrochloric acid to liberate hydrogen.... To employ caution while handling acids, especially if you use strong ones a!, no reaction is written: Zn ( s ) + ZnCl2 aq. Understood by looking at the activity series of metals zinc is above hydrogen whereas copper does not was! Flammable element H2, or hydrogen gas are produced in a redox reaction symbols, for this:. To as a single chemical of the hydrochloric acid, the hydrogen is in. Has the tendency to react with hydrochloric acid reactivity of zinc ( H ) chlorine... The two metals ans switch them based of your reactivity series than and... 'S ability to react with HCl it turns into hydrochloric salt, with bubbles of hydrogen ( H ) hydrochloric...

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