1860 census instructions

You should preserve an accurate record of the returns forwarded, and of the dates when mailed; and if their receipt is not acknowledged in due course of time, you should notify this office of the emission. The returns deposited with the county records are thus disposed of to be reclaimed in case of the lose of the copies transmitted to this office, and to enable persons interested to make correction of errors, but for no other purpose, and they continue the property of the government. Should accident befall you or sickness occur of a nature likely to interfere seriously with the timely prosecution of your duties, you should not on any account withhold information thereof from the Marshal. 1860 Census Day: June 1, 1860. The civil and polite prosecution of your duties you will find indispensable to the success of your efforts and the pleasure of your occupation. Birth Place.-- Under heading 10, you are to insert the place of birth of every individual whose name you record. Mortality schedules list those … In the filling up of the sheets, they must not be folded one in another. Download 1860 Census Instructions to Enumerators [PDF - 5.7 MB] Of course, you are not to insert the name (or crime) of any person who died previous to the 1st day of June on this schedule, but may do so on the schedule of mortality. Appointments should not be made of persons who do not write a plain neat hand. This census transcription is organized by page … 1860 Slave Schedule Schedule 2.–Slave Inhabitants in_____ in the County of _____ State of_____, enumerated by me, on the _____ day of _____, 1860_____ Ass’t Marchal. I insert, in proper consecutive order, the names of all owners of slaves. If a person follows several occupations, insert the name of the most prominent. At all times have this pamphlet of Instructions with you. 1850 Mortality Index; 1860 Mortality Index; 1870 Mortality Index; 1850 Instructions & Results. … Ancestry.com - 1860 United States Federal Census $ Includes … to cover errors, losses, etc., so that for a population of 20,000 free inhabitants in any one subdivision you should send 470 sheets of this schedule. To the Marshals: Having appointed your assistants, and received a duplicate of the oath of office taken by each, pursuant to your instructions from this Department, of the 25th ultimo, you will proceed immediately to the further execution of your duty, as defined by … Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. Expediting the Work- You should impress upon the Assistants the absolute necessity of a vigorous prosecution and timely completion of their respective duties, in order to have them performed during the earlier portion of the space allotted for the work. Census 1860. The 1860 census will provide you the district, township, and county of your ancestor. Where several tenements are in one block with walls to separate them, having different entrances, they are each to be numbered separately, but where not so divided they are to be enumerated as one house. In any and every case where additional schedules may be required you will not fail, in forming your estimates, to bear in mind the numbers necessary for the copies that are to be made. 1, the nature of such institution, and in column 14, opposite the name of each inmate, you must state the character of the infirmity or misfortune, in the one case, and in the other the nature of the crime for which each inmate is confined and of which the party stands convicted, and in the column with the name give the year when convicted. In 1918 to 1919, the Bureau of the Census distributed the original schedules to states or to the National Library of the Daughters of the American Revolution when states were not interested. 8. Schedule No. 2. 1860 Issaquena County Federal Census. When persons who have been convicted of crime within the year resided, on the 1st of June, in any family you enumerate, the fact should be stated by giving in column 14, on a line with the name, the character of the crime; but as such an interrogatory might give offence you had better, where you can do so, refer to the county records for the information, but use care in applying the crime to the proper individual on the schedule. You will find it necessary to provide a portable inkstand, with good ink and suitable pens. 8. The particular German State should be given-- as Baden, Bavaria, Hanover. See the 1860 Overview at. 1, the second No. 11. The instructions to enumerators for conducting the 1870 census are essentially the same as those for the 1860 census. Census Instructions. In all such cases write "Ind." Ascertain, at as early a moment as possible, the area of each Assistant's subdivision, and, when practicable, make return thereof with the list of your appointments. Please follow the instructions below to perform your search. Should a poor-house, asylum for the blind, insane, idiotic, or other charitable institution, or a penitentiary, jail, house of refuge or reformation, or other place of punishment be visited, you must number each building or buildings in their regular order, and write in perpendicular column No. Schedule No. This collection contains most of the 1865 New York state census records still in existence. The 1860 census will provide you the district, township, and county of your ancestor. The instructions for conducting the 1880 census include a definition for "Indians not taxed" and an expanded description of Indians to be enumerated: By the phrase "Indians not taxed" is meant Indians living on reservations under the care of … Deficiency of Schedules.- Discretion as to what schedules you will require is lodged with the Marshal, to whom you should make immediate representation of any deficiency for your subdivision. Enumerators were asked to include the following categories in the census: name; age as of the census day; sex; color; … Between 1790 to 1870, the duty of collecting census data fell upon the U.S. Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Insane, Idiotic.-- You should be particular in every instance to inquire whether any slave comes within the above description, and, if so insert the fact in column 8, opposite the number and general description of such slave. 33 States - New States in 1860 Census: Minnesota and Oregon; Territories – Kansas, New Mexico, Nebraska, Utah, Washington, Indian & Unorganized Dakota; 1860 Facts. Please visit the Download Plug-In page for a full list. The instructions for the 1860 Census say: Birth Place.-- Under heading 10, you are to insert the place of birth of every individual whose name you record. The name of the person is to be given although at the time of the enumeration, or on the 1st day of June, such person may have held no slaves. 3. United States Population and Census Cost. 3. A person is to be noted deaf and dumb who was born deaf, or who lost the faculty of hearing before acquiring the use of speech. Schedule No. If the person should be a teacher or professor, state the character of the occupation, as teacher of French, of common school; professor of mathematics, of languages, of philosophy, etc. With regard to manumission, it appears from the returns that during the census year, they numbered a little more than 3,000, … Instructions to the Marshals Explanation of Schedule No. Economy. Full documentation for the 1860 population census, including … Slaves who (born previously) have died since the 1st day of June are to be entered as living, and all details respecting them to be given with as much care as if the slave were living, You an desired to give the names of all slaves whom age reaches or exceeds 100 years. Each portfolio will be accompanied with a sheet of blotting paper with which you will carefully dry all entries made on the schedules. 2. 1860 → Seal of the ... Full documentation for the 1850 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Number of Slaves.-- Under heading 2, entitled "Number of slaves," insert, in regular numerical order, the number of all the slaves, of both sexes. 6. Individual Names.-- Under heading 3, entitled "The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the 1st day of June, 1860, was in this family," insert the name of every free person in each family, of every age, including the names of those temporarily absent on a journey, visit, or for the purposes of education, as well as those that were at home on that day. The instructions to enumerators for conducting the 1870 census are essentially the same as those for the 1860 census. A person may be reputed erratic on some subject, but if competent to manage his or her business affairs without manifesting any symptoms of insanity to an ordinary observer, such person should not be recorded as insane. Department of the Interior, Washington, 1860. You will find it of great advantage to keep a record-book of your Assistants, whereby you may make easy reference to the name, area, and progress of the work. Between 1790 to 1870, the duty of collecting census data fell upon the U.S. Instructions and Index. This duty you may perform more at your leisure. Making returns to Secretary of State.- By the 5th section of the law it is made obligatory upon you to transmit one copy of the returns made by each Assistant to the secretary of your State or Territory. Decennial and the American Community Survey (ACS), Local Update of Census Addresses Operation (LUCA), Participant Statistical Areas Program (PSAP), Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), Decennial Census Questionnaires & Instructions, Decennial Census of Population and Housing, Download 1860 Census Instructions to Enumerators [PDF - 5.7 MB], Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses From 1790 to 2000. 13. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. The resident inmates of a hotel, jail, garrison, hospital, or other similar institution, should be recorded as one family, unless there be several tenements or distinct families, in which case they should be separated. Address.- In the prosecution of your duties you will approach every family and individual of whom you solicit information, with civil and conciliatory manners, and adapt yourself as far as practicable to the circumstances of each, to secure confidence and good will, and as a means of obtaining the information desired with accuracy and despatch. 6. 1.-Free Inhabitants. ]PERSONS, FAMILIES, AND DWELLINGS. 12. I would be necessary. Title: 1860 Census Instructions to Enumerators Author: U.S. Census Bureau Created Date: 1/24/2000 3:21:38 PM This was the eighth census conducted since 1790. The appointment of Assistants.- Having determined on the proper subdivision of your district, you will proceed to appoint your Assistants; a duty involving great responsibility, and one which, it is hoped, you will exercise with judgment, as upon the fitness of those whom you appoint will depend, in a great degree, the reliability of the returns. There may be some errors, but these will mostly be errors in interpretation of writing as opposed to errors of omission. George Francis Train, an American, introduced the horse-drawn street tram into Europe, opening the first stretch of line in 1860 in Birkenhead. Measuring America's People, Places, and Economy. 119) summarize the questions asked on each year’s form. Sex.-- Under heading 5, entitled "Sex," insert the letter "m"for male, and "f" for female, opposite the name, in all cases, as the fact may be. Duty to retake the Census.- Should you have undoubted evidence that the enumeration has been made with gross carelessness, or that a palpably erroneous census has been taken in any subdivision, it will be your duty to have another enumeration made without tiny unnecessary delay. It is to be hoped you will not fail to make record respecting all these classes or persons who may be in your subdivision. Attestation.- You will sign your name on each page of the schedules, and certify and make oath or affirmation at the end of each set of the returns, that they were made according to your oath and the instructions, to the best of your knowledge and belief. 17. Personal Inquiry.- The 10th section of the law imperatively requires of you to " make the enumeration by actual inquiry at every dwelling-house, or by personal inquiry of the head of every family, and not otherwise. Enumerators of the 1860 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Establishing the Composition of a Family Individual names are provided. African Americans were enumerated in the census as all other U.S. residents from 1870 (the first census year following the Civil War and emancipation) onward. Where persons (over 15) are learning trades or serving apprenticeship, they should be recorded as "apprentices," with the name of the trade whereunto they are apprenticed. These returns should be securely put up in packages, and the contents plainly endorsed thereon and transmitted per mail with your frank. Should his predecessor refuse to hand over the records within a reasonable period it will be your duty to direct him last appointed to enumerate the entire subdivision and report all the facts in the case to you, which you will communicate to the Census Office. (Inasmuch as these directions are equally applicable to other schedules, as will appear on their face, they need not be repeated, although to be observed as if they were reiterated.). 6 and 13 of your general instructions and the 15th section of the law. It should be ascertained with all the exactness possible. Census takers (enumerators) later collected these forms in person and transferred the information they contained onto … The Census Bureau mailed each householder an "Advance Census Report" form that they were to fill out without the aid of census employees. The total population included 3,953,761 slaves. If the slave be a child which on the 1st day of June was less than one year old the entry is to be made by fractional parts of a year, as directed in Rule 7, Schedule 1. 7. Enumerators of the 1860 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. The foregoing schedule will serve as your guide for nearly all the entries you will be required to make on the population sheet, and you are requested to study it carefully. 14. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. An act of March 1 1889 authorized approximately 46,000 specially hired and trained enumerators to conduct the 1890 census. or other reliable source, and each Assistant should be required to furnish you with a certificate under the hand of some reliable person of the number of square miles in his subdivision. 5. There were slight changes in the instructions’ wording; however, these served only to clarify the 1850 instructions. 1850 Census: Instructions to Marshals and Assistant Marshals. You can search by last name, first name, or dwelling number. The first is a master mechanic, and should be termed "master mason," "master carpenter," etc., as the case may be, and you should be very particular in designating the employers or master mechanics from the workmen or employed. To sign up for updates please enter your contact information below. If the exact age cannot be ascertained insert a number which shall be the nearest approximation thereto. 2.- Of Schedule No. Instructions to census takers U.S. census takers in 1860 were either Marshals or Assistants who were carefully instructed on how to meticulously enter data on the forms. 1860 Census Geography. The exact or estimated age of every individual is to be recorded. A mechanic who employs others under him is to be termed differently from the one employed. The first house you enter is to be No. The 1960 census was the first to employ a form of self-enumeration. It was the first census following the introduction of statutory civil registration in 1855 and the Registrar General for Scotland was given responsibility for its administration. These questionnaires collected the same information as those in 1850, with a few exceptions. 1860 Federal Census of Tyrrell County, NC Introduction and Instructions. The remaining columns, respecting age, sex, color, etc., you must fill with as much care as in other cases. By "place of abode" is meant the house or usual lodging place of persons. Volume I and Volume II (AMICUS 14000750) Census of the province of New Brunswick, 1861: laid before the provincial Parliament, March 14th, 1862. Slave Inhabitants, you will distribute one half the number for a population of equal amount. Each head of family was listed and asked: The number of free White males and females, respectively: - under 5 years - 5 to 10 years - 10 to 15 years - 15 to 20 years - 20 to 30 years - 30 to 40 years Every effort has been made to transcribe this census as written. The families of Indians who have renounced tribal rule, and who under State or Territorial laws exercise the rights of citizens, are to be enumerated. It would be well to obtain duplicate receipts for the same, one whereof you will forward to this office. See the 1860 Overview at. Although designed ultimately for the use of the people, the department reserves to itself the privilege of examining into and determining the correctness of the returns and their proper arrangement for publication by Congress, and you are to consider the facts communicated as obtained exclusively for the use of the government, and not in any way to be used for the gratification of curiosity or your private advantage or emolument. Return and change of Subdivisions.- In making return of your list of appointments you will clearly designate the nature of the subdivision; at the time you will be at liberty, for what may appear a sufficient cause, to change the district; in which case you should immediately notify the Census Office, stating the object of the change. You can search by last name, first name, or dwelling number. Color.-- Under heading 6, entitled "Color," in all cases where the person is white leave the space blank; in all cases where the person is black without admixture insert the letter "B;"if a mulatto, or of mixed blood, write "M;"if an Indian, write "Ind." The 1860 census collected the following information: 1. name 2. address 3. age 4. sex 5. color (white, black or mulatto) for each person 6. whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic 7. value of real estate and of personal estate owned (required of all free persons) 8. profession, occupation or trade of each male and female over 15 years of age 9. place (state, territory or country) of birth 10. wheth… Data includes decennial censuses from 1790 to 2010 and American Community Surveys (ACS) from 2000 to the present. The instructions for conducting the 1880 census include a definition for "Indians not taxed" and an expanded description of Indians to be enumerated: Ships and vessels.-- Persons on board any description of ships or vessels accidentally or temporarily in port; those who are temporarily boarding at a sailor's boarding or lodging-house, if they belong to other places, are not to be enumerated in your district. 4, four sheets should be distributed for every eighty farms or plantations. Census Questionnaires and Instructions: 1790 to 2000 Appendix A. The 1860 census year began June 1, 1860 and ended July 24, 1860. 4. 7. Included in the 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 U.S. censuses were mortality schedules that asked questions regarding those who died in the twelve months prior to the enumeration. They had to be familiar with a long list of protocols for the federal population and non-population schedules — including the following guidance on collecting individual names: 3, should be transmitted to the smallest subdivisions. If held in trust for minors, give the number of such minors. Marshals with specially hired and trained census-takers to conduct the 1880 … The cases wherein it may be difficult to distinguish between insanity and idiocy are not numerous; should such occur, however, you may rely on the opinion of any physician to whom the case is known. Enumerators of the 1860 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Schedule 2, relating to the slave population, will be omitted in the free States. Ages.-- Under heading 4, entitled "Age," insert in figures what was the specific age of each person at his or her last birth day previous to the 1st day of June, opposite the name of such person. 6.- Social Statistics. 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