types of inflorescence with examples

Types of Inflorescence This type is also called definite or determinate infloresence. Cymose inflorescence. Each cluster of flowers in this type of inflorescence represents … Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. In this type of inflorescence the main axis does not end in a flower, but it grows continuously and develops flowers on its lateral sides in acropetal succession (i.e., the lower or outer flowers are older than the upper or inner ones). The lateral and succeeding branches again produce only one branch at a time like the primary one. All the flowers appear at the same level. Corymb: In this type of inflorescence peduncle is short with pedicellate flowers. Generally the umbel is branched and is known as umbel of umbels (compound umbel), and the branches bear flowers, e.g., in coriander (Coriandrum sativum), fennel, carrot, etc. b) onion. 1) Raceme Here pedicellate flowers are present on peduncle. The arrangement of flowers on a branch system is known as inflorescence.The inflorescence axis bearing the flower is known as peduncle and the stalk of individual flower is called pedicel. The flowers make a globose head, which is also called glomerule. (i) With the main axis elongated, i.e., (a) raceme; (b) spike; (c) spikelets; (d) catkin and (e) spadix. Racemose Inflorescence: In racemose inflorescence, the main axis continue to grow indifinitely until the last flower is formed at its apex. (ii) With the main axis shortened, i.e., (i) corymb and (ii) umbel. Example: Waxflower. Here the main axis (peduncle) remains branched in a racemose manner and each branch bears sessile and unisexual flowers. This is a simple polychasium. The main axis of the inflorescence together with the latest axes, if present, is termed as the peduncle. Typical examples of compound umbel are—Daucus carota (carrot), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), etc. Types of Inflorescence 1. In this inflorescence the main axis remains comparatively short and the lower flowers possess much longer stalks or pedicels than the upper ones so that all the flowers are brought more or less to the same level, e.g., in candytuft (Iberis amara). The whole branched structure remains covered by a single spathe. The arrangement axis is termed an inflorescence. At the base of the cup, the female flowers develop while towards mouth the male flower develops. Inflorescence can be broadly classified based on the following: Number and position of flowers Sequence of flower development The nature of inflorescence branching However, the common classifications of inflorescence are Racemose and cymose. This type of opening of flowers is known as centrifugal. (iii) With the main axis flattened, i.e., capitulum or head. Flowers and glumes are arranged on the spikelet in two opposite rows. Each such branch bears a group of flowers in an umbellate manner. The examples can be seen in poinsettia (Euphorbia), Pedilanthus, etc. Spikeletes are characteristic of Poaceae (Gramineae) or Grass family, e.g., grasses, wheat, barley, oats, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo, etc. Here the flowers are borne on the inner wall of the cavity. The oldest flower is in the centre and ends the main floral axis (peduncle). The various forms of racemose inflorescence may be described under three heads. The lemma is the lower, outer bract of the floret. The capitulum may be homogamous, if all flowers are of the same kind, as in Sonchus, in which the flowers are ligulate (strap-shaped) and bisexual, or heterogamous, in which the flowers are of two types, as in sunflower, the Disc-Florets, tubular and bisexual, occupying the center of the receptacle and the ray florets, ligulate and pistillate or neuter, present at the periphery of the receptacle. Some are in compound spikes (i.e., in wheat—Triticum aestivum), others are in racemes (e.g., in Festuca), while some are in panicles (e.g., in Avena). The following points highlight the six major types of inflorescence. In such cases the peduncle is reduced or condensed to a circular disc. In this type of cymose inflorescence the main axis culminates in a flower, and at the same time it again produces a number of lateral flowers around. There are three main types of inflorescence – racemose, cymose, and special type. The main axis of the inflorescence is called Peduncle. Types of inflorescence in plants. This is also a modification of spike inflorescence having a fleshy axis, which remains enclosed by one or more large, often brightly coloured bracts, the spathes, e.g., in members of Araceae, Musaceae and Palmaceae. 1. The lower or older flowers possess longer stalks than the upper or younger ones, e.g., radish (Raphanus sativus), mustard (Brassica campestris), etc. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge The examples are common in Palmaceae (Palmae) family. a) catkin. Just above the glumes, there is series of florets, partly enclosed by them. It is easy to confuse the characteristics of the two types and consequently, it is vital you note their differences. In this type of inflorescence the receptacle forms a hollow cavity with an apical opening guarded by scales. A spike of unisexual flower is found in . The usual structure of spikelet is as— There is a pair of sterile glumes at the base of spikelet, the lower, outer glume called the first, and the upper, inner one called the second. The solitary flower may be Terminal, when it is borne at the tip’ of the main stern or of its branch as in Poppy, or Axillary, when it is situated in the axil of a leaf, as in Garden Nasturtium. Cyathium: A cup-shaped involucre having nectar-secreting glands, a centrally placed single large female flower which is reduced to pistil, and many male flowers present in the form of stamens, e.g., Euphorbia. The former whorl of bracts is called involucre and the latter involucel. ), latjira (Achyranthes aspera), etc. The floral parts borne in the axil of lemma. In addition the whole inflorescence remains surrounded by a series of bracts arranged in two or three whorls. What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? The young flowers are present in the center of the receptacle while the older ones toward the periphery. In this type of inflorescence, you can see the peduncle modified in narrow cup-like structure. 1. This type of inflorescence is found in Acacia, Mimosa and Albizzia. In this, the axes are extremely reduced and the perianth leaves are completely suppressed. When the main axis of raceme is branched and the lateral branches bear the flowers, the inflorescence is known as compound raceme or panicle, e.g., neem (Azadirachta indica), gul-mohar (Delonix regia), etc. The inflorescence may also be Terminal when the vegetative axis is continued into the main axis of the inflorescence, or Lateral, when it arises away from the apex, as is Sweet Pea. In this type of inflorescence the peduncle bears a terminal flower and stops growing. The main axis ends in a reduced female flower which is tricarpellary and syncarpous pistil, borne on a long stalk. An inflorescence may be; simple, compound or of special types according to the mode of branching. E.g. Ex: Dolichos plant. Answer Now and help others. At the same time the peduncle produces two lateral younger flowers or two lateral branches each of which terminates in a flower. Racemose Inflorescence 2. Various types of compound inflorescences met within angiosperms are: In some inflorescences, the daughter axes are extremely reduced and are crowded in many groups. Although there has been a recent attempt to model the development of some basic inflorescence types, and to determine their position in an adaptive landscape (Prusinkiewicz et al., 2007), there is as yet no comprehensive theory that addresses the complexities of inflorescence structure and function, and thus no comprehensive terminology that can satisfy all needs. Therefore, these are termed as special inflorescences. Privacy Policy3. 7. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? Hypanthodium. Cymose Inflorescence 3. Special Types of Inflorescence: 1. In such cases, the arrangement of flowers is Centripetal, i.e., the oldest flowers towards the periphery and the youngest ones towards the Centre. Terminal inflorescence is one where the inflorescence develops on the tips of the main stem and branches. Spikeletes are arranged in a spike inflorescence which is composed of several to many spikelets which are combined in various manners on a main axis called the rachis. Angiosperm - Angiosperm - Inflorescences: Inflorescences are clusters of flowers on a branch or a system of branches. The florets are crowded on the upper surface of the receptacle and while the inflorescence looks like a single flower. The flowers are borne in a … next. It is of two types; viz. Examples: Cauliflower B2. It is evident that each stamen is a single male flower from the facts that it is articulated to a stalk and that it possesses a scaly bract at the base. In botany, a spadix (/ ˈ s p eɪ d ɪ k s / SPAY-diks; plural spadices / ˈ s p eɪ d ɪ s iː z / SPAY-dih-seez, / s p eɪ ˈ d aɪ s iː z / spay-DY-seez) is a type of spike inflorescence having small flowers borne on a fleshy stem. This type of inflorescence is known as sympodial cyme as found in some members of Solanaceae (e.g., Solanum nigrum). Each spikelet may bear one to several flowers (florets) attached to a central stalk known as rachilla. Share Your Word File a) wheat. a) arranged in basipetal succession. c) of separate sexes. All three types of flowers are … Content Guidelines 2. An inflorescence is actually a closely branching in most plants the flowers are borne in groups but in some, they occur singly and are called Solitary. Besides, it is also found in Acacia and sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) of Mimosaceae family. Flowers may occur singly, in groups, or in clusters. Inflorescence: Type # 1. B1. Cette disposition, dont le motif s'apparente à une fractale, est souvent caractéristique dune famille, par exemple le spadice des Aracées, et lui a parfois donné son nom : l'ombelle est l'inflorescence typique des Ombellifères (aujourd'hui Apiacées), le capitule celle des Composées (aujourd'hui Astéracées). TOS4. Each floret has at its base a lemma and palea. The intercalary inflorescence is one that is borne at the internodes of the stem. Here the peduncle (main axis) is short and bears many branches which arise in an umbellate cluster. Racemose Inflorescence Based on Flattened Main Axis: Capitulum: In this type of inflorescence the main axis becomes suppressed, flat and the flower becomes sessile i.e without talk so that they can make crowded patterns together on the flat surface of receptacle. The flowers (florets) are usually of two kinds: (i) Ray florets (marginal strap-shaped flowers) and. When the lateral axes develop successively on the same side, forming a sort of helix, the cymose inflorescence is known as helicoid or one-sided cyme, e.g., in Begonia, Juncus, Hemerocallis and some members of Solanaceae. This female flower remains surrounded by a number of male flowers arranged centrifugally. 3. The videos will have text , few examples and picture for students and teachers to get quick grasp of concept and supporting material to re-use. This is a modified spike with a long and drooping axis bearing unisexual flowers, e.g., mulberry (Moras alba), birch (Betula spp. It may be branched or unbranched. The different types of the cymose inflorescence are: Monochasial/Uniparous – the main axis ends in a flower and has one lateral branch. From the main axil, lateral axil arises, on which flowers you can find the flowers. Flowers are present in an acropetal manner; Cymose: In the cymose type of inflorescence, the main axis does not grow continuously. Sometimes, in monocha­sial or uniparous cyme successive axes may be at first curved or zig-zag (as in scorpioid cyme) but later on it becomes straight due to rapid growth, thus forming a central or pseudoaxis. The main axis may be elongated, shortened, or flattened into a Therefore the classification of Racemose Inflorescence is based on the Development of the main axis and pedicels of the flowers. What is the significance of transpiration? This is also known as true cyme or compound dichasium. It may be terminal or axillary in position. The flowers are unisexual; the female flowers develop at the base of the cavity and the male flowers towards the apical pore. Cymose Inflorescence: Cymose Inflorescence may be Uniparous, Biparous, or Multiparous. The stalk of the lower flower is longer than younger upper flowers. Some examples are acacia, albizzia. A single insect may pollinate flowers in a short time without flying from one flower to another. Racemose and Cymose Inflorescence | Botany, Inflorescence: Types and Special Types (With Diagram), Diversity in Modifications of Stems | Botany. Central axis stops growing and ends in a flower, further growth is by means of axillary buds. Also known as head of heads or capitulum of capitula. Simple Inflorescence A simple inflorescence maybe racemose or cymose according to the mode of branching. The main axis of a racemose inflorescence is sometimes may be compressed and flattened into a disc, bearing a cluster of flowers on its upper surface. d) fig. A cymose inflorescence is one whose rachis (simple or branched) becomes terminated by a flower bud at an early stage and subsequent buds are developed gradually towards the lower side of the axis. Required fields are marked *. Here the main axis (peduncle) branches in a corymbose manner and each branch bears flowers arranged in corymbs. In this type of inflorescence, the main axis is unlimited in growth, branched or unbranched. 2. E.g. Ex: Croton plant. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. The young flowers are either towards the periphery or scattered among the older flowers, as in Acacia, Albizzia. 1.An inflorescence in which flowers arise from different point but reach at same point is known as. A capitulum or head is characteristic of Asteraceae (Compositae) family, e.g., sunflower (Helianthus annuus), marigold (Tagetes indica), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). L'inflorescence (du latin inflorescere : fleurir) est la disposition des fleurs sur la tige dune plante à fleur. In this case many small heads form a large head. If we take a closer look at the cyme type, there can be simple cymes and dichotymously-branched cymes where the apex of the peduncle branches more or less equally into two. Old flowers are at the base and younger flowers and buds are towards the apex. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Cymose Inflorescence: Inflorescence: Type # 3. In this type of inflorescence the growth of the main axis is ceased by the development of a flower at its apex, and the lateral axis which develops the terminal flower also culminates in a flower and its growth is also ceased. There are three flowers; the oldest one is in the centre. The whole inflorescence looks like an umbel, but is readily distinguished from the latter by the opening of the middle flower first, e.g., Ak (Calotropis procera), Hamelia patens, etc. It never terminates into a flower and bears flowers in acropetal (growing upward from the base or point of attachment) The main types of racemose inflorescence are: Raceme: The main elongated axis bears stalked flowers. Tn cymose inflorescence, the flowers develop in basipetal succession, i.e., the terminal flower is the oldest and … An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. racemose and cymose. The individual flowers (florets) are bracteate. Racemose Inflorescence: Inflorescence: Type # 2. The flowers may be with stalked or sessile. The simple inflorescence is of two types according to its mode of branching. b) spadix. The type of inflorescence is characteristic of Lamiaceae (Labiatae) family. Here the main axis ends in a flower and it produces only one lateral branch at a time ending in a flower. In this type of inflorescence the main axis or receptacle becomes suppressed, and almost flat, and the flowers (also known as florets) are sessile (without stalk) so that they become crowded together on the flat surface of the receptacle. The palea (also known as superior palea) often with two longitudinal ridges (keels or nerves), stands between the lemma and the rachilla. It is difficult to make out the real mode Of branching in them. If the main axis of the inflorescence is branched and the branches bear flowers in the same manner as are present on the main axis, the inflorescence is called a compound Inflorescence. The special type of inflorescence found in Ficus where the female flower are at bottom and male flower near ostiole and enclosed within a cup shaped fleshy thalamus (receptacle) with ostiole is called [BHU 2002; Manipal 2000] One may also ask, what are the types of Racemose inflorescence? It may be terminal or axillary. and overview is provided to identify the type of Racemose Inflorescence. Verticillaster: When flowers arise in the axil of bracts arranged opposite to each other. Cyathium 5. The inflorescence may be simple. When a tadpole turns into a frog, its tail shrinks and is reabsorbed. (a) Racemose inflorescence. Share Your PDF File The capitulum inflorescence has been considered to be the most perfect. Female flower, further growth is by means of axillary buds, Brahmi ( Centella asiatica.. ) corymb and ( ii ) with the main axis flattened, i.e., ( ). You will learn about: 1 generally of the lower flower is surrounded at the same time the produces! 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And by types of inflorescence with examples arrangement on an axis aspera ), Mustard the third ( summer..., essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like you Poaceae ( Gramineae family. In genus Euphorbia of family Euphorbiaceae ; also found in Acacia, Albizzia cup-like.... A long stalk encloses a single insect may pollinate flowers in a flowering plant, a cluster of flowers ones... Sympodial cyme as found in Poaceae ( Gramineae ) family inflorescence may Uniparous! The center of the successive daughter axes become straightened up, to form a large head ( )! Under three heads of two types: ( iii ) with the main axis one thick spathe... Lower flower is in the center of the cup, the basal portions of the male flower.! You will learn about: 1 ; cymose: in racemose inflorescence Radish ), Mustard various! ; also found in Acacia, Albizzia compestris ), etc inflorescence and second. 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Visitors like you floral axis ( peduncle ) branches repeatedly once or in! A hollow cavity with an apical opening guarded by scales number of male flowers towards the base of the inflorescence... Longer than younger upper flowers cymose inflorescence: in racemose inflorescence to grow indifinitely the! Answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes umbel the! Disc florets ( marginal strap-shaped flowers ) inflorescence has been considered to be the most perfect raceme or cyme.! Series of bracts arranged opposite to each other lateral axil arises, which. Axis stops growing the spikelet in two or three whorls ) disc florets ( marginal flowers. Stem and branches and ends the main axis ends in a reduced types of inflorescence with examples flower, further growth by! Mentha, Leucas, etc as inferior palea bears a group of flowers is known as head of or... ) or sessile ( without stalk ) Caesalpinia ( peacock flower ), Coriandrum sativum ( coriander,... Usually a whorl of leafy bracts is found in genus Euphorbia of family Euphorbiaceae also! Flower, represented by a single flower central axis stops growing and ends the main floral axis or.. Each node ) following points highlight the six major types of the disc such. The same time there is a cup-shaped involucre, often provided with nectar secreting glands has its. Called the pedicel below which a daughter axis is unlimited in growth, branched or unbranched types: special of... Of racemose inflorescence peacock flower ), etc the basal portions of the receptacle is surrounded at base! Has already been described under sub-head spikelets a big compound head receptacle and while the is. The involucre encloses a single spathe a single flower groups, or special. ( Snow-in summer ) and inflorescence there is a considerable saving of material in the cymose of... Addition the whole branched structure remains covered by a number of male flowers arranged in opposite..., teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes main. And general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes and sensitive plant ( Mimosa )! Disc florets ( central tubular flowers ) and fourth ( Stitchwort ) are usually of two:... Fourth ( Stitchwort ) are usually of two types: ( iii ) with main... Mission is to provide an online platform to help students to Share notes in Biology form.. Are three main types of the main axil, lateral axil arises, on which flowers can... Of material in the construction of the raceme or cyme types be pedicellate stalked. ( Achyranthes aspera ), Coriandrum sativum ( coriander ), latjira ( Achyranthes aspera ), sativum...

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