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Again, there’s this incredible demand for labor. Christina Snyder: Christianity and the legal doctrines that are developed around colonization have a really strong role in the invasion of North America and also in ideas about slavery. Hasan K. Jeffries: Meredith, obviously this is 2019 and we have been commemorating the 400th anniversary of the arrival of enslaved Africans to the Virginia colony, British North America. No African kingdom or Indigenous nation was untouched, either directly or indirectly, by slavery and colonialism. Discovering Lewis and Clark. Those Christian kingdoms eventually become what we now think of as Spain. Hasan K. Jeffries: I can’t wait to hear it. They are certainly existing within a context but they are also responding to the moment and they are thinking about their futures and responding accordingly. So at that point they and most other English colonies on the Eastern Seaboard increasingly turn to African slavery. One of the things that we know happened from very early historical interactions is that sometimes these war captives were gifted to other Indigenous leaders during diplomacy or to Europeans. For example, the mission system would be one form of colonialism that has to do with converting Indigenous people and assimilating them into a Europeanized, Christianized lifestyle. Those people who had already served in South Carolina households, they remain there. I also wanted to ask you, you’ve written that colonialism brought distinct and evolving notions of bondage into contact with one another. These kinds of moments and activities in our classrooms allow students to see war and conflict, not in a vacuum, but as a social phenomena that really changes the course of events. This episode has been absolutely fascinating. One thing that we do know is that labor is only one part of this equation. But what does happen that’s different is that they, over time, are going to be a smaller and smaller percentage of that overall enslaved population. I tried to be really careful about terminology. Meredith McCoy: If you liked what you heard today, please share it with your friends and colleagues and then let us know what you thought. So there is this kind of arms race that fuels a desire for trade with Europeans and what do Europeans want above all else from Native people? It wasn’t part of my development and my master’s in education, it wasn’t part of my standards or textbooks in Tennessee or Georgia, and it also was not part of the education I received as a student myself, growing up in North Carolina. So that’s extremely significant. Obviously the Atlantic slave trade didn’t begin in 16 and 19, but you’re talking about 130 years of a system having developed. Teaching Tolerance offers free resources to educators who work with children from kindergarten through high school. Unfortunately for the Yamasees, that protection did not include arming them. So that the enslavement of African people is really encouraged by law and by custom and some Southern colonies even goes so far as to try to outlaw Indian slavery all together. But first, we’re going to meet Doctor Meredith McCoy. Meredith McCoy: Teaching Hard History is a podcast from Teaching Tolerance, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. One of the big ideas that Doctor Snyder has researched is that Indigenous peoples had certain ideas about bondage and captivity that predate the invasion of Europeans. I’m Hasan Kwame Jeffries and this is Teaching Hard History: American Slavery, a special series from Teaching Tolerance, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. It highlights Native people’s role in trying to extricate themselves from this trade which had been so detrimental to their societies. “Wakanda forever” is a catchy phrase, but it also reflects an idea that is central to understanding the evolution of American slavery. Hasan K. Jeffries: I’m Doctor Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Associate Professor of History at The Ohio State University. So here’s where I think it’s appropriate to talk about the Yamasees’ war. Meredith McCoy: Christina, what are some common misconceptions that you think people might have to undo as they think about integrating this new content into their classrooms? Historian Christina Snyder tells the story of what happened when these worlds collided. So it’s not just diseases. Meredith McCoy: That has so many ripple effects out across Indian law. I want to return to the Yamasee War for a moment. When it was  enslaving native people as part of a global economy began with Columbus’s second voyage in 1495 and it really continued until the 1880s or even later in some places. A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center ©1991-2020. So in the global context, we often talk about this in the United States, in Canada, in New Zealand, in Australia. That there existed in the 21st century, an African nation that had been untouched by the scourge of transatlantic slavery and the ravages of European colonialism, and as a result, had developed technological capabilities far in advance of anything that existed in the Western world. And there are two things that really distinguish it quite a bit from what you see in an Indigenous context. There is also a kind of prestige and power in having these captives. So the kind of traffic that we think about in the Atlantic is really complicated by our including Native peoples in that story. So they kill about 400 colonists, which may not sound huge in terms of today’s numbers, but that was actually about 7 percent of the colony’s white population. Yet as European expansion, as settler expansion occurs across the continent, we see the same dynamics play out over and over again as Europeans are pushing not only their own bodies and their own consumption of Indigenous lands and resources, but also these really toxic ideas about the commodification of human beings out with them across the continent. So Europeans have this idea that slavery can be passed down indefinitely through, especially the maternal line, is how they begin to define it. It really varies quite a bit. So what people are confronted with is a really difficult and desperate situation and there is a kind of tipping point. There were basically three different things that could happen to a captive. Because it would be really easy for a student to just think, “Well, Indigenous peoples had enslavement too before the Europeans arrived, so why is it a big deal?” Or, “Indigenous peoples participated in the European slave trade too. The end was just the beginning. If you don't have an account, With and About: Inviting Contemporary American Indian Peoples Into the Classroom. The war itself takes place between 1715 and 1718. So it was Spain’s policy not to arm its Indian allies. Here are some resources that can help deconstruct these and other stereotypes: • Stereotypes and Tonto – This lesson from Teaching Tolerance, for grade… But, even though these colonizers are really eager to engage in the African slave trade to get laborers for these plantations that they’re beginning on the American side of the ocean, they sometimes have difficulty accessing it. Native Americans of New England: Key Concepts For Teaching Native American Histories Websites The first is that it’s trans-generational. So as your students are building out these graphic organizers on the ground, they start to draw connections between their ideas and how they’re connecting to the other ideas or pressures that both lead up to the conflict and then that radiate out from it. So these processes are actually much longer. Again, labor is only one part of what might happen with that captive’s life. The Yamasees become very much in debt to these traders. Its goal is Christianization and cultural assimilation and yet the Spanish do provide a measure of protection. So if we just look at the first few decades of Charleston, from 1670 to about 1715, there’re somewhere between 25,000 and 50,000 Indian slaves are deported from that one port in South Carolina. Native American Heritage Month As Native American Heritage Month comes to a close, be sure to continue incorporating this history in your curriculum and support Native American students year-round. Christina Snyder: This is really the moment in Southern history when enslavement becomes really associated with the African trade and enslaving people of African descent. Now, Montana is a leader in educating this population of students, and provides an example for how teachers can use culturally aware instruction to promote tolerance. Shortly after the arrival of Europeans, disease and violence took the lives of an enormous number of indigenous people. Meredith will be joining me for this season of Teaching Hard History: American Slavery. In early December 2016, Teaching Tolerance contracted with Survey USA, a highly rated national polling firm, to conduct an online survey of 1,000 American high school seniors. Welcome to Lessons of Our Land, an innovative curriculum that enables Pre-K through grade 12 teachers to easily incorporate Native American stories, lessons and games into regular classroom instruction. But as a result of that, we have this sort of “If we can enslave you, we will enslave you” system or attitude going on. Black Panther, the movie, did not disappoint. Teaching Tolerance also offers other teaching resources to help promote understanding of the Native American experience. Black Twitter was on fire. Hasan K. Jeffries: Most students leave high school without an adequate understanding of the role slavery played in the development of what would become the United States or how its legacies still influence us today. Before the 1970s, historians tended to depict slavery as something that happened exclusively in the antebellum South, focusing on African Americans. Christina Snyder: They’re really two ways in which Europeans begin to trade in Indigenous slaves. You can also find these online @tolerance.org\hardhistory. We should be thinking about the starting point for slavery in the Americas, if you will, at a totally different moment in time. Outside of Native American circles, the expedition is almost universally called the "Corps of Discovery." When they’re engaging in these wars during the Reconquista, they employ ideas based on what they thought of, as a quote, “just war.”. They are not simply waiting for things to happen to them. A Culturally Responsive Approach to Discussing Thanksgiving in The Classroom - Linday Barrett; Decolonizing Thanksgiving: A Toolkit for Combatting Racism in Schools - Lindsey Passenger Wieck; Teaching about Thanksgiving - LearnNC (UNC School … As you’re building out these timelines, the individual timelines will eventually intersect at specific historical moments so that you’ll start to see the development of a 3D mobile or a 3D model that allows your students to see how these different interests are overlapping and coming in and out of play with each other. How are these interactions changing for leadership and Indigenous nations in the Americas and for leadership in Africa? So to minimize that threat, they removed people from their homeland. Images show Native Americans wearing both modern and traditional clothing and engaging in a variety of activities – everything from weaving to skateboarding. So something that begins small-scale captive exchange really rapidly in the colonial period amplifies into a huge, violent, transformative trade. From college dorm rooms to black barber shops and beauty salons. A widely held tenant was that captivity was a kind of substitute for death in warfare. Teaching Tolerance provides free teaching materials that include over 100 texts, sample inquiries and a detailed K–12 framework for teaching the history of American slavery. Most of them execute their resident traders. The Changing Winds Advocacy Center is a Native American civil rights and education agency that aims to provide a “deeper understanding of the Native experience both in education, in the workplace…and indeed, in the world.” Teaching Tolerance magazine. Part of the reason that we know what we know about these Indigenous captivity practices is that some of the very earliest Europeans who invaded North America were taken captive, and some of them endured these kinds of fates. Why is it that Indigenous peoples really feel that they have to adopt these European notions of the slave trade? We always appreciate your feedback. Europeans are coming in and they’re certainly disrupting dynamics, especially in what come to be known as the colonies, but Indigenous peoples largely are still able to maintain pre-existing relationships with each other and relationships with their lands. Design a Video. Now in our second season, this podcast is part of an effort to provide comprehensive tools for learning and teaching this critical topic. We see that in the 1820s and 1830s when the Supreme Court’s dealing with a set of cases that comes to be known as the Marshall Trilogy. If we want to get a fuller sense of American history and not just present a Eurocentric understanding of it, we have to understand really what the nature of colonialism is and how it continues to impact Indigenous people today. Those are typically furs. As Native American Heritage Month comes to a close, be sure to continue incorporating this history in your curriculum and support Native American students year-round. It often translates as “one who is owned.”. I will say that something very interesting does happen around this time of the Yamasee War. Throughout the colonial period, firearms are a very popular trade item, second only to textiles. But what these things have in common, even though they’re coming out of these very different colonial contexts, is that Native societies are reaching a saturation point where there are settler colonial societies. So we can see both of those dynamics at play at once. Meredith McCoy: Absolutely. The first case, Johnson V. M’Intosh, just when this doctrine of discovery gets sort of lain out and the idea becomes that Native nations are domestic dependent nations. Suggested Learning Activities. That’s why many of them become interested in buying and selling Indigenous captives. They really push deeply into the Mississippi Valley, eventually into Louisiana. Meredith McCoy: It is just devastating to sit with those statistics, to think about the loss of life and the bringing of instability into communities that previously had used these ideas about captivity and bondage in some contexts as a way to restore and maintain a social fabric. Because, essentially what happens is that the European invasion leads to a kind of incorporation, willing or not, of Indigenous peoples onto a global market that really values their labor. In the Southeast, the consequence for the Yamasees is really devastating in the sense that South Carolinians and their allies kill most Yamasees. European colonies, like Virginia and South Carolina, New England, even in New Mexico, they’re beginning to be strongholds of European settlement and pushing out Native people. But taking captives as a byproduct of war is pretty common in Native North America. Settler colonialism is still another kind. So we think, these numbers are very hard to pin down. In that sense it’s taking a life and transforming it. However, Lewis and Clark did not "discover" anything. Meredith McCoy: There is so much history to cover. To compensate for that loss to your people, it was necessary to enact justice. These were fascinating conversations. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: The Indians’ Discovery of Columbus Interactives. Partially because New England had been one of the top buyers of enslaved Native people from the South and they to get more cautious about it in the wake of the Yamasee War. So people who are non-Christian, people who are enemy combatants, that is, they may have some ill will against the Spanish and they’re also starting to articulate these ideas about race and what we would call today “biological ideas about race,” that is that differences can be “carried in one’s blood,” would be the way that they would phrase it. The same limited stories about American Indians persist in textbooks. It’s interesting because even though in many cases European colonizers are really using this brute force to invade Native villages to take captives, they actually wanted to have this legal foundation that would make their conquest legitimate, at least in the eyes of fellow European colonizers. The Native American perspective "Young children's conceptions of Native Americans often develop out of media portrayals and classroom role playing of the events of the First Thanksgiving. Subscribe, share and see past Moments using these options. That’s where you can really see the vulnerability of these kinds of unarmed groups. A Playlist for the Movement – w/ Charles L. Hughes. Meredith McCoy: Yeah. ... A long list of Native American lessons and units from Mr. Donn's site. At the same time that they were then bringing African laborers to the Americas so that they could increase their profits and develop this global capitalism. At the same time, the war itself doesn’t actually liberate Indian people who are already in slavery. Meredith McCoy: The doctrine of discovery becomes such a critical foundational concept in law in the United States. Hasan K. Jeffries: It is very much to the starting point to this whole [sojourn] in what will become North America and what would become what we call today the United States. Hasan K. Jeffries: In our second season, we are expanding our focus to better support elementary school educators, to spend more time with teachers who are doing this work in the classroom and to understand the often-hidden history of the enslavement of Indigenous people in what would become the United States. Search Teaching ToleranceSearch. Twenty million, 95% of the indigenous population, died - many from the smallpox infection to which natives had no immunity. Talking with students about slavery can be emotional and complex. In this activity, students will explore the perspectives of two Native American authors about the meaning of the Thanksgiving holiday and then write journal entries. They had their own conflicts. Which is what we typically think of as the prototypical form of slavery that is the kind that was practiced in the South and the Caribbean in the 18th and 19th centuries. In this way, they can see the multifacetedness of the war itself and they can see both what leads up to it and how it then reverberates into other historical events that come after. That is, it really didn’t recognize indigenous territorial claims as being legitimate in European eyes. If you don't have an account, I am the Blood of the Conqueror, I am the Blood of the Conquered, Requerimiento: The Spanish Requirement of 1513, Precolumbian Native Peoples and Technology, The Atlantic Slave Trade what too few textbooks told you, Social Studies & Multicultural Education, University of Washington-Bothell. We chose seniors because they have completed nearly 12 years of education, including U.S. history, which is mostly taken in the junior or sophomore years of high school. So, shouldn’t we cast equal blame on Indigenous peoples [as] on European colonists or European settlers?”. As Teaching Tolerance puts it, Keeler celebrates Thanksgiving “through a distinctly indigenous lens.” The activity asks students to reflect upon the holiday before and after reading Keeler’s text and that of another indigenous woman, to contrast how that perspective might change. I think the best metaphor probably is to think about as a kind of virus that mutates as it migrates. I think part of the importance of including Indigenous enslavement in how we teach the history of American slavery is that it does change so much about how we understand timeline and geography. The survivors are forced to go back to the mission system in Florida. Christina Snyder: Something interesting that I’ve done with my class in order to really get students to wrap their heads around this is to have them read a version of the Requerimiento, which is a legal document that the Spanish came up with, I think in the 15 teens. Doctor Snyder was someone that we really wanted to bring on early, because we wanted to get her perspectives on how Indigenous understandings of enslavement before European invasion changed once Europeans arrived in what are currently the Americas. Hasan K. Jeffries: We learn how millions of Indigenous people were enslaved during the 400 years between the time Columbus landed in the Caribbean and the American Civil War. Teaching Tolerance provides free teaching materials that include over 100 texts, sample inquiries and a detailed K–12 framework for teaching the history of American slavery. Hasan K. Jeffries: When we think about the racialization of slavery in the American context, we often draw our attention to Bacon’s Rebellion and think about the ways in which this colonial rebellion, landless whites in Virginia, are rebelling against the landed elite for their piece of the pie, and the response to that on the part of the land and white elite is like, “Oh, we need to move away from this particular class hierarchy and shift our attention to creating a permanent underclass, that being enslaved African laborers.”. Societies had they not been disrupted by slavery and colonialism was forever and irrevocably changed is exciting! 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